Due to weather conditions and ageing vines, Bordeaux produced fine, concentrated wines in 1952, 1953 and 1955. 1955 was an historic year, as it marked the beginning of a new era for Bordeaux. The reason for this paradigm shift was the shock delivered by a -20°C cold snap in Bordeaux in February of 1956 which killed off a wide swath of vines. Saint-Émilion and Pomerol were hit hardest. Areas least affected by the killing frost still had to deal with a delayed growing season and a cold, rainy summer. Any hopes of having even a mediocre year were lost.